Different Components of a Vehicle Transmission System

Posted on May 4, 2020 Jerold Perkins Aerospace

What is transmission system of a vehicle?

The automatic transmission of a motor vehicle is a transmission that allows for automatic shifting of gears, permitting the internal combustion engine to easily reach a range of speed and torque outputs for efficient operation and travel. In the present, almost every vehicle on United States roads feature automatic transmissions, a testament to their benefits and abilities. In this blog, we will provide an overview of the vehicle automatic transmission system, discussing the various main components that compose them.

Automatic transmissions are complex systems, containing mechanical, electrical, and hydraulic systems that work together to perform operations. While a transmission may be an assembly of a multitude of parts, the main transmission components include planetary gear sets, hydraulic system parts, seals & gaskets, the torque converter, the governor & modulator, and the computer.

Different Vehicle Transmission System Components

1. Planetary Gear A planetary gear set is a set of gears that include a center “sun” gear, as well as two or more “planet” gears that are connected through a common carrier which allows for the gears to spin on pinions. As a car drives, the movement of these gears may be constricted or spin in various combinations to adjust the vehicle gear. To control shifting and gears, the ring gear is attached to the engine input shaft, allowing for locking and powering of gears. Shifts are also automatically controlled by the computer or similar equipment, allowing for quick and clean shifting that is almost unnoticeable to the driver.

2. Hydraulic System The hydraulic system of the automatic transmission is responsible for the transportation of transmission fluid throughout the system. Transmission fluid is highly important to the functionality of the transmission as it aids in shift control, transmission cooling, and general lubrication. Without pressurized fluids from the hydraulic system, transmission parts may quickly begin to wear, damage, and even fail.

3. Seals and Gaskets Seals and gaskets serve the transmission by governing the flow of hydraulic fluid, as well as sealing the apparatus to prevent leakage. Vehicular Seals within the transmission are typically manufactured from neoprene and will prevent oil from seeping into certain moving parts. They also may allow for fluids to freely traverse within certain areas while ensuring no leakage. Vehicular Gaskets are a type of seal that may be used to seal components that have been secured or fastened to each other. When manufacturing gaskets, materials such as paper, rubber, cork, soft metal, and silicone are most common.

4. Torque Convertors Torque converters are a component that replaces the clutch of a manual transmission. The converter connects the power source and load together, and they allow for a car engine to continue running while the vehicle is at a stop. As a type of fluid coupling, the torque converter creates an ease of braking, allowing the engine to spin slowly and slightly independent from the transmission.

5. The Governor & Modulator The governor, vacuum modulators, and throttle cables are pertinent components to non-computerized automatic transmissions, dictating when gears shift within the transmission. Factors such as weight and engine load are monitored by components, allowing for longer or earlier shifts. In comparison, computerized automatic transmission systems allow for a computer to monitor throttle position, engine speed, vehicle speed, and other information to control when shift points are and how hard or soft those shifts should be.
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