There are many different wing designs, shapes, and sizes, with each variation fulfilling a certain need in respect to the performance of the aircraft. The wings are attached to either side of an aircraft fuselage and are the main lifting surfaces that support the plane in flight. Wings can be attached at the lower, middle, and top portion of the fuselage. Some wings are angled back, some curve up, while others have fixed wings.
A fixed wing aircraft is one that is capable of flight using forward motion that generates lift as the wing moves through the air. Most fixed wing aircraft require a pilot on board to maneuver it to its destination; however, advancements in drone technology have produced an unmanned, remote controlled capacity. Fixed wing aircraft can be categorized into three different types: monoplane, biplane, and triplane.
A monoplane is a fixed wing aircraft designed with one main set of wings. Their design has been nearly universally adopted as they have the highest efficiency and lowest drag of any wing configuration and are simple to construct. It proved its worth during World War II, and since then has completely supplanted the biplane design. Most commercial aircraft that air passengers travel on are monoplanes.
A biplane is similar to a monoplane except that it has a second set of wings, stacked on top of each other. This style permits lighter wing structures, low wing loading, greater maneuverability, and a smaller wingspan area ratio. This style of aircraft was popular during World War I, which is why the military was one of the last manufacturers to abandon the design. The disadvantage of biplanes is the amount of drag produced by the two sets of wings; they suffer greatly from aerodynamic interference.
Triplanes have an additional third set of wings stacked on top of each other. They have reduced wingspan area in comparison with a biplane— resulting in a smaller, more lightweight structure. Triplanes offer better maneuverability and a higher load capacity and were popular during the first World War. Triplanes quickly lost their popularity after the war as biplanes proved to be more functional/practical.
Bearings and bushings are used in a multitude of applications from complex aerospace machinery to simple clocks. They are a small component, yet there are many different variations because each one supports different loads and performance. So, what exactly are they?
Bearings assist machinery in moving at high speeds while reducing friction, stress, and wear. They are typically used to support rotating shafts in machines. On the other hand, a bushing is an independent plain bearing that supports a shaft; it allows relative motion by sliding instead of rolling. Unlike bearings, bushings don’t have multiple components.
Most bearings support a rotating shaft in machinery. They allow movement between components and provide contact between them, such as balls or rollers, which reduce friction. There are two general classifications: journal bearings and thrust bearings. Journal bearings support loads that act at right angles to the axes while thrust bearings support loads that act parallel to the axis. Within these classifications, there are many subcategories, and each is used to support different loads.
Bushings provide low friction motion and reduce power consumption, noise, and wear. They are metal tubes that are typically made from a bronze powder and are self-lubricating. The way that the bronze powder is compressed allows small pores to remain. They are saturated with oil, which seeps into the pores. When the bushing contacts a shaft, it deposits a thin film of lubricating oil. Bushings are often cheaper than ball bearings and can be used on both hardened and non-hardened shafts, while the ball bearing can only be used on hardened shafts. The disadvantages of using a bushing are that they can move in a jerking motion and they may not fit properly, leading to faster wear and tear of the machinery.
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